Hannibal is generally regarded[by whom?] By 220 BC, the Romans had annexed the area as Cisalpine Gaul. [71] Prusias agreed, but the general was determined not to fall into his enemy's hands. Hannibal Riding a War Elephant by jaci XIII (CC BY-NC-SA) The Punic Wars were a series of conflicts fought between the forces of ancient Carthage and … But this gain was not without loss, as Sempronius avoided Hannibal's watchfulness, slipped around his flank, and joined his colleague in his camp near the Trebia River near Placentia. Winning battles at Trebia (218 BC) and Lake Trasimene (217 BC), Hannibal defeated armies led by Tiberius Sempronius Longus and Gaius Flaminius Nepos. His younger brothers were Mago and Hasdrubal, and he was brother-in-law to Hasdrubal the Fair, who also commanded Carthaginian armies. He has taught history, writing, literature, and philosophy at the college level. [9] Although they did not inherit the surname from their father, Hamilcar's progeny are collectively known as the Barcids. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. [91][92] Although the long-term consequences of Hannibal's war are debatable, this war was undeniably Rome's "finest hour". No records exist of  Carthage awarding Hannibal any recognition for his service in Italy and he was honored more by Scipio's pardon and defense than by any actions on the part of his countrymen. Greek historians rendered the name as Anníbas (Ἀννίβας). His father was Hamilcar Barca (l. 275-228 BCE), the great general of the First Punic War (264-241 BCE). [87], According to the historian Livy, the Romans feared Hannibal's military genius, and during Hannibal's march against Rome in 211 BC, "a messenger who had travelled from Fregellae for a day and a night without stopping created great alarm in Rome, and the excitement was increased by people running about the City with wildly exaggerated accounts of the news he had brought. Upon reaching the mountains he was forced to leave behind his siege engines and a number of other supplies he felt would slow their progress and then had the army begin their ascent. Despite mutual admiration, negotiations floundered due to Roman allegations of "Punic Faith," referring to the breach of protocols that ended the First Punic War by the Carthaginian attack on Saguntum, and a Carthaginan attack on a stranded Roman fleet. Matyszak writes: In the field, Hannibal remained umatched. It seemed that Hannibal had to either fight his way out or surrender but then, one night, the Romans saw a line of torches moving from the Carthaginian camp emplacement toward an area they knew was held by a strong garrison of their own. Hannibal, now perceiving his jealousy, replied, "in that case I should have put myself before Alexander". In the Second Punic War it was occupied by Fabius Cunctator in 217 B.C., taken by Hannibal after a gallant defence by troops from Praeneste and Perusia in the winter of 216-215, but recaptured in the following year, serving the Romans as their base of operations against Capua. The last major battle of the Second Punic War resulted in a loss of respect for Hannibal by his fellow Carthaginians. Hannibal not only perceived this as a breach of the treaty signed with Hasdrubal, but as he was already planning an attack on Rome, this was his way to start the war. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Our mission is to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Ancient History Encyclopedia. He became such a figure of terror that whenever disaster struck, the Roman senators would exclaim "Hannibal ante portas" ("Hannibal is at the gates!") Hasdrubal, recognizing that Spain was a lost cause, crossed the Alps to join Hannibal in Italy for a united attack on Rome. With their foremost general defeated, the Carthaginians had no choice but to surrender. It is believed that his refusal to bring the war to Rome itself was due to a lack of commitment from Carthage of men, money, and material â€” principally siege equipment. Background . Ancient History Encyclopedia, 29 Mar 2018. When Hannibal launched his elephant charge, Scipio's front line simply moved aside and the elephants ran harmlessly down the alleys between the Roman troops who then killed their handlers and turned the elephants around to crush the ranks of the Carthaginians; Hannibal was defeated and the Second Punic War was over. He crossed without opposition over both the Apennines (during which he lost his right eye[46] because of conjunctivitis) and the seemingly impassable Arno, but he lost a large part of his force in the marshy lowlands of the Arno.[47]. He was called back to Africa to defend Carthage from Roman invasion, was defeated at the Battle of Zama in 202 BCE by Scipio Africanus (l. 236-183 BCE) and retired from service to Carthage. Here, Hannibal forced the Romans to evacuate the plain of Lombardy, by virtue of his superior cavalry. Mark, Joshua J. Suggested readings include ḤannobaÊ¿al,[4] ḤannibaÊ¿l, or ḤannibaÊ¿al,[5][6] meaning "BaÊ¿al/The lord is gracious", "BaÊ¿al Has Been Gracious",[6][7] or "The Grace of BaÊ¿al". Hannibal's chief cavalry commander Maharbal led the mobile Numidian cavalry on the right, and they shattered the Roman cavalry opposing them. We follow Hannibal throughout his campaigns as well as looking at the Punic Wars at large. https://www.ancient.eu/hannibal/. In March 212 BC, Hannibal captured Tarentum in a surprise attack but he failed to obtain control of its harbour. Fabius understood that Hannibal was no common adversary, however, and still refused to engage. Polybius, The Histories of Polybius, 2 Vols., trans. Hannibal ravaged Apulia but was unable to bring Fabius to battle, so he decided to march through Samnium to Campania, one of the richest and most fertile provinces of Italy, hoping that the devastation would draw Fabius into battle. These two bodies came from the wealthy, commercial families of Carthage. But Carthage then made a terrible blunder. 2004. Scipio defended Hannibal as an honorable man and kept the Romans from sending a delegation demanding his arrest but Hannibal understood it was only a matter of time before his own countrymen turned him over and so he fled the city in 195 BCE for Tyre and then moved on to Asia Minor where he was given the position of consultant to Antiochus III (the Great, r. 223-187 BCE) of the Seleucid Empire. There is no doubt, as Bradford also notes, that had Hannibal "been fighting against any other nation in the ancient world...his overwhelming victories would have brought them to their knees and to an early capitulation" (210) but the cause of Hannibal's defeat was just as much the fault of the Carthaginian elite who refused to support the general and his troops who were fighting for their cause. The western Mediterranean during the Punic Wars. Personal Names in the Phoenician and Punic Inscriptions. Ronald Mellor considered the Greek scholar a loyal partisan of Scipio Aemilianus,[95] while H. Ormerod does not view him as an 'altogether unprejudiced witness' when it came to his pet peeves, the Aetolians, the Carthaginians, and the Cretans. With a small detachment still positioned in Gaul, Scipio made an attempt to intercept Hannibal. There is even an account of him at a very young age (9 years old) begging his father to take him to an overseas war. Armies had marched towards each other, had fought in parallel order, and the conqueror had imposed terms on his opponent. Count Alfred von Schlieffen developed his eponymously titled "Schlieffen Plan" (1905/1906) from his military studies, with a particularly heavy emphasis on the envelopment technique which Hannibal employed to surround and destroy the Roman army in the Battle of Cannae. The situation without any added expense on their part and suggested his men onto! 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