Wire wrapping (vrij vertaald: draad om draad draaien) is een techniek om sieraden te maken die vooral erg populair is in de Verenigde Staten. After this, a random-routed board can have wire sizes calculated as the distance between pins, plus the stripped distances on each end, plus a percentage (usually 5%) for slack. [3] The sockets are an additional cost compared to directly inserting integrated circuits into a printed circuit board, and add size and mass to a system. A "wire wrap tool" has two holes. Wires were wrapped by hand around binding posts or spade lugs and then soldered. For the jewelry-related topic, see, Horowitz and Hill, "The Art of Electronics 3rd Edition", pp. After viewing product detail pages, look here to find an easy way to navigate back to pages you are interested in. It also reduces wear on the wire-wrap machines, and allows assembly technicians to place more wires per hour. A listing is made of the wires and other items needed for assembly, which is sorted and printed out for use by machine operators, and turned into a tape or card deck for the machine. Also, to make an assembly more repairable, wires are applied in layers. CAD for wire-wrap requires that a schematic be encoded into a netlist. In telecommunications wire wrap is in common high volume use in modern communications networks for cross connects of copper wiring. Further, with 28 such connections (seven turns on a four-cornered post), a very reliable connection exists between the wire and the post. This reduces vibration of the longer wires, making the board more rugged in a vibrating environment such as a vehicle. They persisted into the 21st century in distribution frames where insulation-displacement connectors had not taken over entirely. Wire-wrap works well with digital circuits with few discrete components, but is less convenient for analog systems with many discrete resistors, capacitors or other components (such elements can be soldered to a header and plugged into a wire wrap socket). Manual annotation is usually still required for special signals, such as high-speed, high current or noise-sensitive circuits, or special construction techniques such as twisted pairs or special routing. The principal competitor in this application is punch blocks, which are quicker but less secure. Usually blue is used for bottom wires, and yellow for top wires. Furthermore, the corners of the posts are quite "sharp": they have a quite-small radius of curvature. Automated wire-wrap machines, as manufactured by the Gardner Denver Company in the 1960s and 1970s, were capable of automatically routing, cutting, stripping and wrapping wires onto an electronic "backplane" or "circuit board". The tool was marketed under its original name – since the name of the manufacturer was coincidentally the same as the name of the inventor. Later, somewhat smaller machines were "vertical" (14FV) which meant the boards were placed onto a tooling plate with pins facing the machine operator. When the pin name in the netlist matches the pin name in the pin list, it copies the physical coordinates in the pin list to the netlist. This forces all the gases out of the area between the wire's silver plate and the post's gold or tin corners. The guns are manually pulled down, and the trigger pressed to make a wrap. Long wires are usually placed first within a level so that shorter wires will hold longer wires down. If this is done, any special annotations or colors (e.g. The method eliminates the design and fabrication of a printed circuit board. When high currents are needed, wire sizes can be halved (or standard digital wires sizes can be used for higher currents) by routing the nets as circles, rather than sequences. Gone were the hydraulic units, in favor of direct drive motors to rotate the ball screws, with rotary encoders to provide positioning feedback. It also permits faster signals by reducing the capacitance of the net, and uses less power by reducing each wire's resistance. Vanuit een aantal basis vaardigheden waaronder het maken van loops, krullen en draaiingen van de draad ontstaan later de prachtigste sieraden in de meest uiteenlopende variëteiten. white for clock signals or red for power) can be assigned, because these programs have intimate knowledge of the integrated circuit pins. This arrangement permits manual repair or modification with the removal of at most three wires. But in a semi-automated wire-wrap system, this moves the wrap head away from the user's hand when placing a wire. IBM's first transistorized computers, introduced within the late 1950s, were built with the IBM Standard Modular System that used wire-wrapped backplanes. Placing all the wires of a certain size and level at the same time makes it easier for an assembly technician to use precut, prestripped wires while using a semiautomated wire-wrapping machine. The earliest machines (14FB and 14FG models, for example) were initially configured as "horizontal", which meant that the wire wrap board was placed upside down (pins up) onto a horizontal tooling plate, which was then rolled into the machine and locked onto a rotating (TRP table rotational position of four positions) and shifting (PLP = pallet longitudinal position of 11 positions) pallet assembly. Wire wrapping was used for splices and for finishing cable ends in suspension bridge wires and other wire rope rigging, usually with a smaller diameter wire wrapped around a larger wire or bundle of wires. Wire wrap was used for assembly of high frequency prototypes and small production runs, including gigahertz microwave circuits and supercomputers. Electronic components mounted on an insulating board are interconnected by lengths of insulated wire run between their terminals, with the connections made by wrapping several turns of uninsulated sections of the wire around a component lead or a socket pin. Often done by hand in older systems, this step is now done automatically by EDA programs that perform "schematic capture." The wraps could be coated in solder for even greater strength and to prevent oxidation between the wires.[5]. In the late 19th century, telegraph linemen developed methods of making a wire splice that would be strong mechanically and also carry electricity. Early wire wrapping was performed manually; a slow and careful process. 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